A limited liability company (s.r.o.) as a legal entity is a created legal fiction that cannot act on its own without the participation of natural persons. Ltd. it must necessarily be based on a certain organizational structure. The legal regulation distinguishes two types of bodies, namely obligatory bodies and optional bodies. However, it is necessary to distinguish a body of a company from the persons that make up that body. An authority can be defined as an internal unit of a company without legal personality, consisting of a person or a group of persons providing the company as a legal person, either in relation to third parties or inside the company
The Commercial Code defines the obligation of each s.r.o. at its inception to create a general meeting and appoint the first executive, respectively. executives of the company. These are obligatory bodies without which s.r.o. cannot exist. The law also lacks the staffing of these bodies as a result of the dissolution of the company. Ltd. in order to carry out legal acts, it urgently needs a competent natural person to perform such legal acts on behalf of the company. It is a statutory body of a company, which may be a manager or managers authorized to act alone or together. The statutory body is established in the document, which was s.r.o. established or later may be appointed by the General Meeting of the Company. In view of the seriousness of the changes affecting this executive body, the more significant fact is the change in the number of executives authorized to act on behalf of the company than the actual staffing of the post. Personnel replacement does not interfere with the MOA and therefore a qualified majority is not required for the decision of the General Meeting. On the other hand, a change in the number of directors, even if this change occurs only by appointing another director to appointed directors or dismissal without appointing a new executive, is a change in the memorandum to which the law attaches the number of votes required to take such a decision.
The optional body that may be established by a memorandum of association is the Supervisory Board. It is a supervisory body which is primarily to supervise the performance of the statutory body. The facultativeness of this body is given mainly by the assessment of s.r.o. as a legal form suitable mainly for small businesses, where control activities are also carried out by the shareholders themselves at the general meeting, bringing to the fore a certain personal character of this legal form. However, foreign law also knows the obligatory nature of the Supervisory Board, for larger companies with, for example, more than 500 employees, as in Germany, or more than 50 partners, as in Austria. In the Slovak conditions, the creation of supervisory boards has not significantly prevailed, which is mainly the character of a limited liability company in our conditions, where companies are used mainly for direct business by partners who also perform the function of executives of the company and where control is primarily performed by within the available options.